IO - BufFileWrite
BufFileWrite events occur when PostgreSQL creates temporary files. When operations require more memory than the working memory parameters currently define, they write temporary data to persistent storage. This operation is sometimes called “spilling to disk.”
The default value for
work_mem is 4 MB. If one session performs operations in parallel, each worker handling the parallelism uses 4 MB of memory. For this reason, set
work_mem carefully. If you increase the value too much, a database running many sessions might consume too much memory. If you set the value too low, PostgreSQL creates temporary files in local storage. The disk I/O for these temporary files can reduce performance.
If you observe the following sequence of events, your database might be generating temporary files:
- Sudden and sharp decreases in availability
- Fast recovery for the free space
You might also see a “chainsaw” pattern. This pattern can indicate that your database is creating small files constantly.
In general, these wait events are caused by operations that consume more memory than the
maintenance_work_mem parameters allocate. To compensate, the operations write to temporary files. Common causes for the
BufFileWrite events include the following:
Queries that need more memory than exists in the work memory area
Queries with the following characteristics use the work memory area:
- Hash joins
- Window functions
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT
- Materialized view refresh
Statements that need more memory than exists in the maintenance work memory area
The following statements use the maintenance work memory area:
We recommend different actions depending on the causes of your wait event.
Assume a situation in which Performance Insights isn’t turned on and you suspect that
BufFileWrite are occurring more frequently than is normal. Do the following:
- Check the storage space available locally for your PostgreSQL database instance.
- Look for a chainsaw pattern, which is a series of jagged spikes.
A chainsaw pattern indicates a quick consumption and release of storage, often associated with temporary files. If you notice this pattern, turn on Performance Insights. When using Performance Insights, you can identify when the wait events occur and which queries are associated with them. Your solution depends on the specific query causing the events.
Or set the parameter
log_temp_files. This parameter logs all queries generating more than threshold KB of temporary files. If the value is
0, PostgreSQL logs all temporary files. If the value is
1024, PostgreSQL logs all queries that produces temporary files larger than 1 MB. For more information about
log_temp_files, see Error Reporting and Logging in the PostgreSQL documentation.
Your application probably use joins. For example, the following query joins four tables.
SELECT * FROM order INNER JOIN order_item ON (order.id = order_item.order_id) INNER JOIN customer ON (customer.id = order.customer_id) INNER JOIN customer_address ON (customer_address.customer_id = customer.id AND order.customer_address_id = customer_address.id) WHERE customer.id = 1234567890;
A possible cause of spikes in temporary file usage is a problem in the query itself. For example, a broken clause might not filter the joins properly. Consider the second inner join in the following example.
SELECT * FROM order INNER JOIN order_item ON (order.id = order_item.order_id) INNER JOIN customer ON (customer.id = customer.id) INNER JOIN customer_address ON (customer_address.customer_id = customer.id AND order.customer_address_id = customer_address.id) WHERE customer.id = 1234567890;
The preceding query mistakenly joins
customer.id, generating a Cartesian product between every customer and every order. This type of accidental join generates large temporary files. Depending on the size of the tables, a Cartesian query can even fill up storage. Your application might have Cartesian joins when the following conditions are met:
- You see large, sharp decreases in storage availability, followed by fast recovery.
- No indexes are being created.
CREATE TABLE FROM SELECTstatements are being issued.
- No materialized views are being refreshed.
To see whether the tables are being joined using the proper keys, inspect your query and object-relational mapping directives. Bear in mind that certain queries of your application are not called all the time, and some queries are dynamically generated.
In some cases, an
ORDER BY clause can result in excessive temporary files. Consider the following guidelines:
Only include columns in an
ORDER BYclause when they need to be ordered. This guideline is especially important for queries that return thousands of rows and specify many columns in the
Considering creating indexes to accelerate
ORDER BYclauses when they match columns that have the same ascending or descending order. Partial indexes are preferable because they are smaller. Smaller indexes are read and traversed more quickly.
If you create indexes for columns that can accept null values, consider whether you want the null values stored at the end or at the beginning of the indexes.
If possible, reduce the number of rows that need to be ordered by filtering the result set. If you use
WITHclause statements or subqueries, remember that an inner query generates a result set and passes it to the outside query. The more rows that a query can filter out, the less ordering the query needs to do.
If you don’t need to obtain the full result set, use the
LIMITclause. For example, if you only want the top five rows, a query using the
LIMITclause doesn’t keep generating results. In this way, the query requires less memory and temporary files.
A query that uses a
GROUP BY clause can also require temporary files.
GROUP BY queries summarize values by using functions such as the following:
GROUP BY queries, follow the recommendations for
ORDER BY queries.
If possible, avoid using the
DISTINCT operation to remove duplicated rows. The more unnecessary and duplicated rows that your query returns, the more expensive the
DISTINCT operation becomes. If possible, add filters in the
WHERE clause even if you use the same filters for different tables. Filtering the query and joining correctly improves your performance and reduces resource use. It also prevents incorrect reports and results.
If you need to use
DISTINCT for multiple rows of a same table, consider creating a composite index. Grouping multiple columns in an index can improve the time to evaluate distinct rows. Also, you can correlate statistics among multiple columns by using the
CREATE STATISTICS command.
GROUP BY, you change the result set, and then retrieve the aggregated result. Using window functions, you aggregate data without changing the result set. A window function uses the
OVER clause to perform calculations across the sets defined by the query, correlating one row with another. You can use all the
GROUP BY functions in window functions, but also use functions such as the following:
To minimize the number of temporary files generated by a window function, remove duplications for the same result set when you need two distinct aggregations. Consider the following query.
SELECT sum(salary) OVER (PARTITION BY dept ORDER BY salary DESC) as sum_salary , avg(salary) OVER (PARTITION BY dept ORDER BY salary ASC) as avg_salary FROM empsalary;
You can rewrite the query with the
WINDOW clause as follows.
SELECT sum(salary) OVER w as sum_salary , avg(salary) OVER w as_avg_salary FROM empsalary WINDOW w AS (PARTITION BY dept ORDER BY salary DESC);
By default, the PostgreSQL execution planner consolidates similar nodes so that it doesn’t duplicate operations. However, by using an explicit declaration for the window block, you can maintain the query more easily. You might also improve performance by preventing duplication.
When a materialized view refreshes, it runs a query. This query can contain an operation such as
ORDER BY, or
DISTINCT. During a refresh, you might observe large numbers of temporary files and the wait events
BufFileWrite. Similarly, when you create a table based on a
SELECT statement, the
CREATE TABLE statement runs a query. To reduce the temporary files needed, optimize the query.
When you create an index, the engine orders the result set. As tables grow in size, and as values in the indexed column become more diverse, the temporary files require more space. In most cases, you can’t prevent the creation of temporary files for large tables without modifying the maintenance work memory area. For more information, see Maintenance Memory Area.
A possible workaround when recreating a large index is to use the pg_repack tool. For more information, see Reorganize tables in PostgreSQL databases with minimal locks in the pg_repack documentation.
CLUSTER command clusters the table specified by table_name based on an existing index specified by index_name. PostgreSQL physically recreates the table to match the order of a given index.
When magnetic storage was prevalent, clustering was common because storage throughput was limited. Now that SSD-based storage is common, clustering is less popular. However, if you cluster tables, you can still increase performance slightly depending on the table size, index, query, and so on.
If you run the
CLUSTER command and observe the wait events
maintenance_work_mem. Increase the memory size to a fairly large amount. A high value means that the engine can use more memory for the clustering operation.
In some situation, you need to tune memory. Your goal is to balance the following requirements:
work_memvalue (see Work Memory Area)
- The memory remaining after discounting the
shared_buffersvalue (see Shared Buffer Area)
- The maximum connections opened and in use, which is limited by
In some situations, your only option is to increase the memory used by your session. If your queries are correctly written and are using the correct keys for joins, consider increasing the
work_mem value. For more information, see Work Memory Area.
To find out how many temporary files a query generates, set
0. If you increase the
work_mem value to the maximum value identified in the logs, you prevent the query from generating temporary files. However,
work_mem sets the maximum per plan node for each connection or parallel worker. If the database has 5,000 connections, and if each one uses 256 MiB memory, the engine needs 1.2 TiB of RAM. Thus, your instance might run out of memory.
Your database uses memory areas such as the shared buffer pool, not just the work memory area. Consider the requirements of these additional memory areas before you increase
work_mem. For more information about the buffer pool, see Shared Buffer Area.
For example, assume that your PostgreSQL instance has 64 GiB of memory. By default, 75 percent of the memory is reserved for the shared buffer pool. After you subtract the amount allocated to the shared memory area, 16,384 MB remains. Don’t allocate the remaining memory exclusively to the work memory area because the operating system and the engine also require memory.
The memory that you can allocate to
work_mem depends on the instance class. If you use a larger instance class, more memory is available. However, in the preceding example, you can’t use more than 16 GiB. Otherwise, your instance becomes unavailable when it runs out of memory. To recover the instance from the unavailable state, the PostgreSQL automation services automatically restart.
Suppose that your database instance has 5,000 simultaneous connections. Each connection uses at least 4 MiB of
work_mem. The high memory consumption of the connections is likely to degrade performance. In response, you have the following options:
- Upgrade to a larger instance class.
- Decrease the number of simultaneous database connections by using a connection proxy or pooler.
For proxies, consider pgBouncer, or a connection pooler based on your application. This solution alleviates the CPU load. It also reduces the risk when all connections require the work memory area. When fewer database connections exist, you can increase the value of
work_mem. In this way, you reduce the occurrence of the
BufFileWrite wait events. Also, the queries waiting for the work memory area speed up significantly.